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高考各科必懂的答题规范【四】

更新时间:2019-07-04 11:39

物理
 
 
 
一、必要的文字说明
 
必要的文字说明的目的是说明物理过程和答题依据,答题时应该说些什么呢?我们应该从以下几个方面给予考虑:
 
1.说明研究对象(个体或系统,尤其是要用整体法和隔离法相结合求解的题目,一定要注意研究对象的转移和转化问题
 
);
 
2.画出受力分析图、电路图、光路图或运动过程的示意图;
 
3.说明所设字母的物理意义;
 
4.说明规定的正方向、零势点(面);
 
5.说明题目中的隐含条件、临界条件;
 
6.说明所列方程的依据、名称及对应的物理过程或物理状态;
 
7.说明所求结果的物理意义(有时需要讨论分析)。
 
二、要有必要的方程式
 
1.写出的方程式(这是评分依据)必须是原型公式,不能以变形的结果式代替方程式,如带电粒子在磁场中运动时应有
 
qvB=m,而不是其变形结果式R=;
 
2.要用字母表达方程,不要用掺有数字的方程,不要方程套方程;
 
3.要用原始方程组联立求解,不要用连等式,不断地“续”进一些内容;
 
4.方程式有多个的,应分式布列(分步得分),不要合写一式,对各方程式最好能编号。
 
三、要有必要的演算过程及明确的结果
 
1.演算时一般先进行文字运算,从列出的方程推导出结果的计算式,最后代入数据并写出结果;
 
2.数据的书写要用科学记数法;
 
3.计算结果的有效数字的位数应根据题意确定,取两位或三位即可,如有特殊要求,应按要求选定;
 
4.计算结果是数据的要带单位,最好不要以无理数或分数作为计算结果(文字式的系数可以),是字母符号的不用带单
 
位。
 
四、解题过程中运用数学的方式有讲究
 
1.“代入数据”,解方程的具体过程可以不写出;
 
2.所涉及的几何关系只需写出判断结果而不必证明;
 
3.重要的中间结论的文字表达式要写出来;
 
4.所求的方程若有多个解,都要写出来,然后通过讨论,该舍去的舍去;
 
5.数字相乘时,数字之间不要用“·”,而应用“×”进行连接;相除时也不要用“÷”,而应用“/”。
 
五、使用各种字母符号要规范
 
1.字母符号要写清楚、规范,忌字迹潦草,阅卷时因为“v、r、ν”不分,大小写“M、m”或“L、l”不分,“G”的
 
草体像“a”,希腊字母“ρ、μ、β、η”笔顺或形状不对而被扣分已屡见不鲜;
 
2.尊重题目所给的符号,题目给了符号的一定不要再另立符号.如题目给出半径是r,你若写成R就算错;
 
3.一个字母在一个题目中只能用来表示一个物理量,忌一字母多用;一个物理量在同一题中不能有多个符号,以免混淆
 
 
4.尊重习惯用法,如拉力用F,摩擦力用f表示,阅卷人一看便明白,如果用反了就会带来误解;
 
5.角标要讲究,角标的位置应当在右下角,比字母本身小许多.角标的选用亦应讲究,如通过A点的速度用vA就比用v1
 
好,通过某相同点的速度,按时间顺序第一次用v1、第二次用v2就很清楚,如果倒置,必然带来误解;
 
6.物理量单位的符号源于人名的单位,由单个字母表示的应大写,如库仑C、亨利H,由两个字母组成的单位,一般前
 
面的字母用大写,后面的字母用小写,如Hz、Wb;
 
六、学科语言要规范,有学科特色
 
七、绘制图形、图象要清晰、准确
 
1.必须用铅笔(便于修改)、圆规、直尺、三角板绘制,反对随心所欲徒手画;
 
2.画函数图象时,要画好坐标原点和坐标轴上的箭头,标好物理量的符号、单位及坐标轴上的数据;
 
3.图形、图线应清晰、准确,线段的虚实要分明,有区别。
I. Necessary Textual Descriptions
 
The purpose of the necessary explanations is to explain the physical process and the basis for 
 
answering questions. What should we say when answering questions? We should consider the following 
 
aspects:
 
1. Explain the research object (individual or system, especially the problem solved by the combination 
 
of holistic method and isolation method, we must pay attention to the transfer and transformation of 
 
the research object);
 
2. Draw force analysis diagram, circuit diagram, optical path diagram or schematic diagram of motion 
 
process;
 
3. Explain the physical meaning of the letters.
 
4. Describe the specified positive direction and zero potential point (surface);
 
5. Explain the implicit and critical conditions in the title.
 
6. Describe the basis, name and corresponding physical process or state of the equations.
 
7. Explain the physical meaning of the results (sometimes need to be discussed and analyzed).
 
Necessary Equations
 
1. The equation written out (which is the basis of grading) must be the prototype formula. It can not 
 
be replaced by the result of deformation. For example, when a charged particle moves in a magnetic 
 
field, it should have qvB=m instead of the result of deformation R=.
 
2. Express the equation in letters, do not use equations mixed with numbers, and do not set equations.
 
3. To solve the problem simultaneously with the original equations, do not use the continuous equation, 
 
and constantly "continue" into some content;
 
4. There are many equations. We should arrange them by fractions (score by steps). We should not write 
 
them together. It is better to number them.
 
3. Necessary calculating process and definite results
 
1. In calculus, literal operations are usually carried out first, and the calculation formula of the 
 
results is derived from the listed equations. Finally, the data are substituted and the results are 
 
written.
 
2. Data should be written by scientific notation.
 
3. The number of valid digits of the calculation results should be determined according to the 
 
intention of the question. Two or three digits should be selected. If there are special requirements, 
 
the digits should be selected according to the requirements.
 
4. The result of calculation is a unit of data, and it is better not to use irrational number or 
 
fraction as the result of calculation (the coefficient of literal form can be used), it is not a unit 
 
of alphabetic symbols.
 
Fourth, there is a particular way to use mathematics in solving problems.
 
1. "Substitute data" and the specific process of solving the equation can not be written out.
 
2. The geometric relations involved need only to write out the judgment results, but not to prove them.
 
3. The text expression of the important intermediate conclusion should be written out.
 
4. If there are many solutions to the equation, they should be written out, and then, through 
 
discussion, they should be discarded.
 
5. When multiplying numbers, do not use "..." to connect them, but use "*" to connect them; when 
 
dividing, do not use "" to apply "/".
 
5. Standardization of the use of various alphabetic symbols
 
1. Letter symbols should be clearly written and standardized, avoid scribbled handwriting. When marking 
 
papers, it is not uncommon to deduct marks for "v, r, _", for "M, m" or "L, l", for "G" in cursive 
 
form, for "a", for the Greek letters "rho, mu, beta, _" in stroke order or in incorrect shape.
 
2. Respect the symbols given by the title. If the title gives a radius of r, you will be wrong if you 
 
write it as R.
 
3. A letter can only be used to represent a physical quantity in a topic, so that it can not be used 
 
more than one letter; a physical quantity can not have multiple symbols in the same topic, so as to 
 
avoid confusion;
 
4. Respect customary usage, such as pulling force with F, friction with f, markers will understand at a 
 
glance, if used in the opposite way will bring misunderstanding;
 
5. Corner markers should be located in the lower right corner, much smaller than the letter itself. 
 
Corner markers should also be selected carefully, such as the speed through point A using vA is better 
 
than using v1, through a certain point of speed, according to the time sequence of the first use of v1, 
 
the second use of V2 is very clear, if inverted, it will inevitably lead to misunderstanding;
 
6. Symbols of units of physical quantities originate from units of names, which should be capitalized 
 
by a single letter, such as Coulomb C and Henry H. Units consisting of two letters are usually 
 
capitalized at the front and lowercase at the back, such as Hz and Wb.
 
6. Disciplinary language should be standardized with disciplinary characteristics
 
7. Drawing graphics and images clearly and accurately
 
1. We must draw with pencils (easy to modify), compasses, rulers and triangles, and oppose freehand 
 
drawing at will.
 
2. When drawing function images, we should draw the origin of coordinates and arrows on coordinate 
 
axes, and mark the symbols of physical quantities, units and data on coordinate axes.
 
3. Graphics and lines should be clear and accurate, and the virtual and real parts of lines should be 
 
distinct and different.
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